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Lowenstern, Edith Rita (1904–1970)

by Barbara Ainsworth

Edith Rita Lowenstern (1904-1970) was a successful female mathematician, researcher and lecturer in a period of change. After graduating from the University of Melbourne, she was the first female full-time lecturer in Tasmania with her appointment in the Mathematics Department in the University of Tasmania in 1928. She actively participated in university politics as an undergraduate in the SRC at the University of Melbourne and later as a staff member at the University of Tasmania. She also maintained her connection with the early women’s graduate groups in Australia and was a leading figure in female hockey in Tasmania in the 1930s.

Edith Rita Lowenstern was born on 26 December 1904 in Dandenong, Victoria, and was the youngest child of Isaac and Emily Lowenstern. She was known by her second name, Rita. Her mother, Emily Lowenstern née Holgate was born in Richmond in 1863 to English parents and was Isaac’s second wife. Rita’s father, a German immigrant, had a general store in Lonsdale Street, Dandenong, from 1887, known as “The Kangaroo Store” before building a large brick shop called “Universal House” in 1899. Isaac sold the business in 1912 to enter retirement and the family moved to Melbourne, living in Malvern by 1914. Rita had two brothers, two half-sisters, and a half-brother. Isaac’s first wife was Edith Lowenstern née Angel.[1]

After the family moved to Melbourne, Rita was sent to Merton Hall, Melbourne Girls’ Grammar School (MGGS), in 1918. She was a good student both academically and in the school community, excelling in mathematics as well as playing hockey and taking leadership roles. Rita was a probationer (a sort of junior prefect) for 1919 and 1920, and a prefect in 1921 and 1922.[2] She later commented that her maths teacher at MGGS was a “wonderful maths mistress” and encouraged her to continue with her studies.[3] At school, she met Betty Allan[4] who was also very interested in mathematics and together they progressed through school and then university. Rita completed her Leaving in 1922 and was accepted at the University of Melbourne, commencing in 1923 with a government scholarship and a residential scholarship for Janet Clarke Hall, Trinity College.

At the University of Melbourne, Rita completed a B.A. degree with second class honours in mathematics in April 1926. Her subjects included Pure Mathematics parts I, II, and III, Mixed Mathematics I, II and III; she obtained second-class honours each year and in the final examination. She was one of only two women who sat for final honours in Mathematics in March 1926. She also took courses in Natural Philosophy, Psychology Logic and Ethics, Chemistry and Principles of Pure Mathematics. She was a joint winner of the Dixon and Wyselaskie Scholarship in Mathematics along with her friend Betty Allan in 1926.[5] Following her graduation, Rita took a Diploma in Education and also completed her M.A., receiving the Professor Wilson Prize for her thesis on Forced Oscillations.[6]

Rita participated in life at Janet Clarke Hall and was president of the Hall’s committee in 1925.[7] An article in Table Talk in August 1926 described a social event at the Hall called “At Home” where the students entertained guests for an evening gathering. Rita and other hostesses, including Betty Allan, welcomed friends and university staff with the main guest, the Warden of Trinity, as well as other senior academic staff members. The article described the apparel of many of the attendees, including Rita who wore “delphinium blue crepe-de-chine”.[8] During her academic work at Melbourne, Rita also continued to play hockey throughout her degree and was secretary of the Melbourne University Women’s Hockey Club in 1923 and captain in 1924 and 1925.[9] She also participated in student affairs. She was a member of the committee of Melbourne University Women and the Students’ Representative Council.[10]

After graduation, Rita was employed as a tutor and lecturer at Melbourne University as well as receiving a research scholarship in 1928 to work with Professor John Henry Michell on the topic “The Stabilising Effect of Imposed Oscillation of High Frequency on the Dynamical System”. She published this work later in 1932.[11]

At the end of 1928, Rita applied for the position of full-time lecturer at the University of Tasmania (UTAS) in the Maths Department. The University had offered maths classes since 1893 with Professor Alexander McAulay in charge until Edwin Pitman was appointed Professor of the two-person department in 1926. Pitman then advertised for another member of staff for the department.[12] Pitman, like Rita, had attended the University of Melbourne and won the Wilson prize for mathematics and the Dixson scholarship in mathematics prior to enrolling in the Australian Imperial Force in 1918. He returned to Melbourne in 1919 and completed his BA (1921), was awarded the Dixson and Wyselaskie scholarships, then graduated with a BSc in 1922 and MA in 1923. He was tutor in mathematics at the University of Melbourne at Trinity and Ormond Colleges before his move to Tasmania in 1926.[13]

The University of Tasmania selection committee received six applications for the position of lecturer in the Maths Department, including two from Melbourne, one from Sydney, two from Tasmania and one from New Zealand. Rita presented her application with a large number of referees including Professor John Henry Michell[14]; Professor Charles Ernest Weatherburn[15]; senior lecturers in maths at the University of Melbourne, Robert James Allman, Barnard and Gunnar Gundersen[16]; Dr John Clifford Valentine Behan, warden of Trinity College[17]; Miss Margery Herring, principal of Janet Clarke Hall[18] and Miss Kathleen Gilman Jones, Headmistress[19] MGGS.[20] During the selection committee’s initial discussions on this appointment, the vice-chancellor, William Joshua Tilley Stops[21], proposed that the female candidate should be eliminated from consideration. This proposal was not accepted and the final decision of the committee recommended Rita Lowenstern for the position of full-time lecturer in the Department of Mathematics under Professor Edwin Pitman. However, the appointment had to be confirmed by the University Council. The council was originally composed of only prominent citizens but in 1921 academic staff were given access to a seat in council. The following year the staff also formed a staff association. Both these moves were to prove very important for Rita Lowenstern’s career and her application for the appointment of the new maths lecturer in 1928.

Several council members were quite against the possibility of a woman for the position. Two went on record against the idea; they were Hugh Davison, Erwin, who was on staff at Hutchins School, Hobart[22]and also a part-time lecturer in the Maths Dept. and the other was William Henry Williams, professor emeritus, formerly foundation professor of classics and English literature, UTAS[23]. Critically council elections for three member positions occurred in November 1928. Both Erwin and Williams were up for retirement from the council. Erwin did not elect to run again but Professor Williams successfully stood again (narrowly defeating Dr Christine Walch who represented the Womens’ Graduate Association) for the final third position. Fortunately for Rita, after the elections, the council now included staff member and professor of Mathematics, Edwin Pitman. The Council allowed the recommendation of the selection committee to appoint a woman to the lectureship. Professor John Orr, a Tasmanian Rhodes scholar then at the University of Manchester, later publicly stated he was against a female staff member and called for an administrative and curricular enquiry into the matter.[24]

There was considerable publicity when the appointment was announced. The local newspaper, The Mercury, ran a full article and photo of Rita. Headed  “The University. Lecturer in Mathematics. Lady Appointed”, it was a full description of her curriculum vitae and noted she was the first full-time female appointment at the University.[25] She commenced work in January 1929 at the age of 25. She was paid the full  salary as advertised for the position, not a lower female rate.[26] She taught pure and applied mathematics in ten classes spread over six days a week. In an interview under the title “Careers for Girls” in 1930, the author comments on the unusual situation of having a young female lecturer taking classes in Part Three Science and Engineering. However, they remind the reader this is now 1930 and “young men are completely used to this tableau”.[27]

A more satirical note was made in an article in The Mercury, under the title “Passing Notes” by the author called Mercurius, commenting with surprise on Rita’s appointment, both to the staff in the first place and actually in the field of mathematics..

“An epoch marking event in the life of the University is the appointment of a woman, Miss E.R. Lowenstern, to the staff. What is even more important is that she has been appointed to lecture in mathematics, a subject which man has always regarded as exclusively his own.”

After some meanderings, the author finishes,

“I offer my congratulations and best wishes to this donna (female don), a worthy pioneer of the feminist movement.”[28]

Apart from her work and continued research, Rita settled into Hobart life, participating in sport leadership again and was a member of the Southern Tasmanian Women’s Hockey Association, regularly taking on the role of president until 1948.[29] She also entered into the University community and was secretary of the Staff Association in the early 1930s. She was a member of the Tasmanian Womens’ Graduate Society and attended the 5th biennial conference of the Australian Federation of University Women Graduates held in Hobart in January 1930. The local branch was particularly pleased to report that a woman had a lecturing position at the University of Tasmania.

“The appointment of Miss Rita Lowenstern as lecturer in mathematics at the University of Tasmania marked a new era in the ‘Varsity’s history.”[30]

In the late 1920s, the University was having financial difficulties with their government allocated budget cut by 25%. The Staff Association offered to make a ‘voluntary’ salary reduction of 20%. Looking for further savings, the Council suggested that Rita Lowenstern’s position, as a woman, could be made part-time. This would have had a major impact on her income. At this stage, Rita had been secretary of the Staff Association from 1930 to 1931 and Richard Davis commented in his 1985 article on the politics at the University of Tasmania that she had a “prominent” role. There were some disagreements between the Staff Association and the Council. Again, the Council did not move against her as Edwin Pitman gave her strong support and Rita maintained her full-time status.[31]

Rita completed her research project conducted through the University of Melbourne and published a paper in 1932, entitled “The Stabilizing effect on imposed oscillations of high frequency on a dynamical system.” in The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Vol.13, Issue 84. The paper refers to “Mr E.R. Lowenstern” on the top line. It was a technical paper and derived a general equation of motion for an inverted pendulum with an oscillating pivot.[32]

In her 1930 interview with the Illustrated Tasmanian Mail, Rita had commented that the usual career path was to go to England, like her friend Betty Allan, but she was still committed to her work in Tasmania. This changed when she married Roy Scott McArthur (1886-1963) in December 1935 in Hobart. R. S. McArthur was an electrical engineer and was part of the management of the Electrolytic Zinc Company of Australasia, Hobart.[33] Following her marriage, Rita resigned her position as lecturer in 1936.[34]

Earlier, in 1935 Mrs T. Murdoch had raised the issue of the lack of women being appointed as examiners for assessing Leaving papers at the University Council meeting. The council defended their position by saying there were very few women qualified to take the job and often those who were qualified were excluded because they were teachers. Professor Pitman listed the names Misses Lowenstern, Manning, and Travers as the only three women who were appointed to be Examiners.[35] After a break, by the mid-1940s Rita was again acting as examiner for geometry for the University of Tasmania. Then in 1946 Rita herself became a member of the University Council as the first official representative of the Tasmanian Womens’ Graduate Association. This was a four-year appointment and commenced January 1, 1946.[36]

In the late 1940s, Roy McArthur retired from his position and the couple moved to a house, named “Fellsgarth” at Bicheno on the coast of eastern Tasmania. They did not have any children but Roy had children from a previous marriage including a son, also called Roy Scott McArthur, and he is named in Rita’s will as her step-son.[37] Rita maintained her interest in hockey throughout this period and retired in 1948 from her role of president of the Southern Tasmanian Hockey Association after giving 19 years of service to the association.[38] The couple became active members of the Bicheno community and Rita joined the local branch of the Country Women’s Association and was a committee member, including the position of president in 1950.[39] Mr R. S. McArthur died in 1963. Rita continued to live at Bicheno until her death in 1970. She maintained her interest in the mathematics department of the University of Tasmania and endowed a mathematics prize of $1000 in her will. Named the Edith Rita Lowenstern Prize, it is “Awarded to the student with the greatest proficiency in the fourth year Honours course with first class honours, offered by the Department of Mathematics.”[40] It is a fitting commemoration of a person who succeeded in the field of mathematics at a tertiary level despite the barriers to women in the system at the time.

SOURCES

Newspapers, online access TROVE

  • Illustrated Tasmanian Mail, Hobart, Tasmania
  • The Mercury, Hobart, Tasmania
  • The Examiner, Launceston, Tasmania
  • The Advocate, Burnie, Tasmania

Archives

  • Merton Hall, Melbourne Girls’ Grammar School, South Yarra, Victoria
  • Tasmanian Government LINC website
  • University of Tasmania Records Management Unit
  • University of Melbourne

Newspaper articles

 Online resources

Published Resources

  • “CAREERS FOR GIRLS University Lecturer in Mathematics Miss Rita Lowenstern Interviewed for ‘The Mail’.” Illustrated Tasmanian Mail, Hobart, Tasmania, October  1, 1930 p. 23
  • Davis, R.  “Free academics or council servants. Tasmanian University staff before the Murray Report”, Vestes No. 2, 1985, pp. 28-34.

 Published works by E.R. Lowenstern

  • Lowenstern, E.R. ‘The stabilizing effect of imposed oscillations of high frequency on a dynamical system.’ The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Vol. 13, issue 84, 1932 pp. 458-486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786443209461948

 [1] Family history notes produced by AJ Morton, Emily Holgate birth record "Australia Births and Baptisms, 1792-1981," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XT66-R3X : 11 December 2014), Emily Holgate, 24 Aug 1880; citing ; FHL microfilm 992,953.Edith Rita Lowenstern christening record "Australia Births and Baptisms, 1792-1981," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XT85-95M : 11 December 2014), Isaac Lowenstern in entry for Edith Rita Lowenstern, 14 Aug 1919; citing ; FHL microfilm 993,809. See also Lowenstern family history notes http://ajmorton.tripod/html/isaac_lowenstern856.html accessed 1 June 2006// Isaac Lowenstern naturalised 1895 NAA A712, 1895/B925 https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=1795963

[2] Information supplied by MGGS Archives, January 2017

[3] Illustrated Tasmanian Mail, October 1, 1930 p23 “CAREERS FOR GIRLS University Lecturer in Mathematics Miss Rita Lowenstern Interviewed for ‘The Mail’.

[4] Heyde, C. C, 'Allan, Frances Elizabeth (1905-1952)', in Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol. 13, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1993, pp. 26-27. http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/allan-frances-elizabeth-betty-9330

[5] Melbourne University Calendar 1927 p 1042 https://digitised-collections.unimelb.edu.au/bitstream/handle/11343/23396/105582_UMC192708_Annual%20Report.pdf?sequence=9

[6] The Advocate (Burnie, Tasmania), 12 April 1929 p2 “Miss Edith Rita Lowenstern”  https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/67808537

[7] The Fleur-de-Lys, Vol 3, No 25 p.21 https://issuu.com/trinitycollegecollections/docs/fleur-de-lys-1925-vol-3-no-25

[8] Table Talk, 12 August 1926 p58, “At Home” at Melba Hall. Students of Janet Clarke Hall Entertain.’ https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/rendition/nla.news-article146596196.3

[9] Melbourne University Hockey Club, accessed 30 Jan 2017, http://www.muhc.org.au/club-info/history/captains/

[10]The  Mercury, (Hobart, Tas.: 1860 – 1954) 21 November 1928 p6 “The University. Lecturer in Mathematics. Lady Appointed” https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/24251981

[11] Lowenstern, E.R. ‘The Stabilizing Effect of Imposed Oscillations of High Frequency on a Dynamical System.’ The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine Journal of Science, Vol. 13, issue 84, 1932 pp. 458-486.

[12] The Companion to Tasmanian History, University of Tasmania, MATHEMATICS, http://www.utas.edu.au/library/companion_to_tasmanian_history/M/Mathematics.htm accessed 30 Jan 2017

[13] Jane Pitman, 'Pitman, Edwin James George (1897–1993)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, https://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/pitman-edwin-james-george-27021/text34496  , published online 2020, accessed online 13 April 2021.

[14] T.M. Cherry, ‘Michell, John Henry (1863-1940), Australian Dictionary of Biography, national centre of Biograph, Australian National University, https://adb.anu.edu.au/michell-john-henry-7568/text13209, published first in hardcopy 1986, accessed online 19 May 2021

[15] A. K. Weatherburn, 'Weatherburn, Charles Ernest (1884–1974)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, https://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/weatherburn-charles-ernest-9018/text15883 , published first in hardcopy 1990, accessed online 19 May 2021

[16] Cohen, Michael 2006 “Historical. The appointment of the first four professors of mathematics in the University of Melbourne” Gazette 32 Vol 5, http://www.austms.org.au/wp-content/uploads/Gazette/2006/Mar06/historical.pdf accessed 19 May 2021 There is some confusion over the spelling of G. Gundersen’s name, Cohen spells G. Gunderson with an O but his obituary uses the spelling Gundersen, The Argus 11 Feb 1943 p9 Obituary - Mr G. Gundersen http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/24251981

 Note newspaper article also possibly misspells Gunderson as Gunnison when listing Rita’s referees.http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/24251981   

[17] A. G. L . Shaw, ‘ Behan, Sir John Clifford Valentine (1881-1957)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre for Biography, Australian National University, 1979, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/behan-sir-john-clifford-valentine-5185.   The University of Melbourne Perpetual Calendar; Behan, John Clifford Valentine (1881-1957) https://umpc.esrc.unimelb.edu.au/biogs/E001936b.htm

[18] Trinity College Newsletter -Miss Margery Herring. Vol 1 No.14, October 1980 https://issuu.com/trinitycollegecollections/docs/tcn_v1_n14_oct_1980 accessed 19 May 2021; Miss Herring retired in December 1927 and was presented a farewell gift on behalf of the old students by Rita Lowenstern. The Age 10 Dec 1927 p19 “Farewell to Miss Herring” https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/202283104

[19] L. M. M. Mitchell, 'Jones, Kathleen Annie Gilman (1880–1942)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, https://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/jones-kathleen-annie-gilman-6877/text11919 , published first in hardcopy 1983, accessed online 19 May 2021; Melbourne Girls Grammar. About Us - History. https://www.mggs.vic.edu.au/about-us

[20] The Companion to Tasmanian History, University of Tasmania, MATHEMATICS, http://www.utas.edu.au/library/companion_to_tasmanian_history/M/Mathematics.htm accessed 30 Jan 2017

[21]“ Mr William Stops, Our Longest Serving Vice-Chancellor.” UTAS 125 Years Timeline, https://125timeline.utas.edu.au/timeline/1910/mr-william-stops/ accessed 19 May 2021

[22] Obit Hugh Davison Erwin 1879-1957, Hutchins School Magazine No. 97 July 1957 pp6-8, https://www.hutchins.tas.edu.au/assets/Hutchins_School_Magazine_No_97_July_1957.pdf accessed 19 may 2021

[23] J. C. Horner, 'Williams, William Henry (1852–1941)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, https://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/williams-william-henry-9120/text16085 , published first in hardcopy 1990, accessed online 19 May 2021.

[24] Davis, Richard 1985 “Free academics or council servants. Tasmanian University staff before the Murray Report”, Vestes No. 2, 1985, pp28-34;// 125 Years Timeline, University of Tasmania 2015 Lidl, R. and Elliott, D. ‘Mathematics.’. http://125timeline.utas.edu.au/timeline/2010/mathematics/ and ‘Mysterious Miss Lowenstern’ http://125timeline.utas.edu.au/timeline/1930/mysterious-miss-lowenstern/ accessed 1/2/2017 The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), Thursday 22 November 1928, page 8 “University of Tasmania The Council Election Result of Poll”

[25] The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), Wednesday 21 November 1928, page 6 The University, Lecturer in Mathematics, Lady Appointed” https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/24251981

[26] University of Tasmania Records Management Unit, file Mrs R.S. McArthur,  Copy of letter to Miss Lowenstern from L.R. Thomas, Registrar, undated and copy of Conditions of Appointment, lectureship in Mathematics with “Miss Lowenstern” written by hand at the top, advertisement with pay rate appeared in The Mercury, Lectureship in Mathematics” 12 Sept 1928 p.1http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/29770746.

[27] Illustrated Tasmanian Mail, October 1, 1930 p23 “CAREERS FOR GIRLS University Lecturer in Mathematics Miss Rita Lowenstern Interviewed for ‘The Mail’.

[28] The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), Saturday 24 November 1928, page11 Mercurius “Passing Notes” https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/1801131

[29] The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), Saturday 3 July 1948, page 5 “Hockey President Farewelled” https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/27772769

[30] The Examiner (Launceston, Tas. : 1900 - 1954), Tuesday 21 January 1930, page 8 (2) “University Women/CONFERENCE OF AUSTRALIAN FEDERATION/TASMANIAN REPORT INDICATES STEADY PROGRESS” http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article51641065

[31] Davis, R. 1985 pp28-34.

[32] Ciezkowski, Maciej, “Dynamic stabilization and feedback control of the pendulum in any desired position”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol 491, 20 January 2021, 115761 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2020.115761

[33] "Australia, Tasmania, Civil Registration (District Registers), 1839-1938," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:Q2S1-PMMC : 10 May 2016), Isaac Lowenstern in entry for Roy Scott Mcarthur and Edith Rita Lowenstern, 14 Dec 1935; citing Marriage, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, The Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office, Hobart; FHL microfilm 100,698,211.

[34]  The Companion to Tasmanian History, University of Tasmania, MATHEMATICS, http://www.utas.edu.au/library/companion_to_tasmanian_history/M/Mathematics.htm accessed 30 Jan 2017

[35] The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), Saturday 29 June 1935, page 3 “UNIVERSITY COUNCIL/ Appointment of Examiners/ Preference to Men Alleged”,  https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/30093344

[36] The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), Saturday 30 March 1946, page 7 “Women On University Council” https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/26178472

[37] [Will No. 53664] McArthur, Edith Rita https://linctas.ent.sirsidynix.net.au/client/en_AU/names/search/detailnonmodal/ent:$002f$002fNAME_INDEXES$002f0$002fNAME_INDEXES:705243/one?qu=mcarthur&qu=edith&qu=rita

[38] The Mercury (Hobart, Tas)  Saturday 3 Jul 1948 p5 “Hockey President Farewelled” http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27772769

[39] The Examiner (Launceston, Tas) 25 Oct 1950 p10 https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/52792213

[40] University of Tasmania - Edith Rita Lowenstern Prize Accessed 10 April 2021 http://prizes.scholarships.utas.edu.au/AwardDetails.aspx?AwardId=1677 

* Barbara Ainsworth is curator of the Monash Museum of Computing History, Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University.

 

Original Publication

  • People Australia, 8 June 2021

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Citation details

Barbara Ainsworth, 'Lowenstern, Edith Rita (1904–1970)', People Australia, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, https://peopleaustralia.anu.edu.au/biography/lowenstern-edith-rita-31846/text39315, accessed 21 June 2021.

© Copyright People Australia, 2012